Royal College Competencies


    • 1 in 3 will have CV disease.
    • Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
      • Men: 2 in 3 (67%)
      • Women: 1 in 2 (50%)
    • INTERHEART Study
      • INTERHEART Study assessed risk factors for CVD globally (included 30,000 pts) in 52 countries.
      • Showed differences in risk of CVD
        • South Asians have highest risk. (more central obesity, insulin resistance etc..)
      • Waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio indicators of abdominal obesity predict CVD independent of BMI.
        • Being an "apple" fat in abomen is worse than being a "pear" fat in hips.
    • Mortality in heart disease is much higher than chronic kidney disease (CKD).
      • Any degree of albuminuria is an independent risk factor for CV events, heart failure hospitalizations and all-cause mortality.


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